The Fisheries Secretary is to join government ministers from across Europe for crunch talks on changes to the way fleets are governed.
It is vital that the opportunity is taken in Luxembourg to add common sense to the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), Richard Lochhead said.
"In Luxembourg, the EU council holds the future of Scotland's fishing industry in its hands," he said before the meeting.
"Decisions will be taken that will change the shape of our fishing industry and our fishing communities both now and for years to come. It is imperative the opportunity is seized to make sure those changes are changes for the better."
Decision-making powers should be returned to regional and member-state level and the controversial discards practice, which forces skippers to throw away fish to meet quotas, must end, he said.
Mr Lochhead also opposes Transferable Fishing Concessions which he says will put historic fishing rights in jeopardy.
"Our fishermen and our fishing communities are counting on the next CFP to show common sense," he said.
"They are counting on the council to acknowledge the great work that is taking place to conserve fish stocks and increase sustainability and they are counting on the support of the whole of Scotland as we continue to fight to protect their livelihoods and their communities."
In a Holyrood debate last week, MSPs of all parties called for an overhaul to the way the CFP is designed.